In the territory of modern Tajikistan, the ancient cities of Penjikent (known since the 6th century), Khojent, Ura-Tyube (and still famous for the products of local craftsmen), Isfara, Kanibadam and others are located. Architectural monuments of cities of neighboring Uzbekistan are also a thing of Tajik history and culture ( Samarkand, Bukhara, etc.), with which Tajikistan has long been a single state. In Tajikistan itself, it is worth noting such monuments as the Gissar fortress, the mausoleum of Khoja Mashhad, Ajina-Tepe with the remains of Buddhist monasteries of the 7th-8th centuries.
Tajikistan is one of the most ancient states in the world. The territory of modern Tajikistan was settled before the middle of I millennium BC. e. Sogdians and Bactrians, who created their famous state in antiquity - Sogdiana and Bactria. In the VI. BC. this territory was conquered by the Persian state of the Achaemenids, but already in the 4th c. BC e. the Achaemenid Empire fell under the blows of Alexander the Great's troops, who seized (with great difficulty) and Sogdiana with Bactria. In the 1st c. n e. a new powerful state was formed here - the Kushan Empire, and after its collapse in the III. AD Sogdiana and Bactria for a short period came under the authority of the Sassanid Empire. After its fall, the territory of the country many times "passed from hand to hand" of many powerful empires - from the Samanid dynasty (875-999) and the Mongol Empire of Timur (Tamerlane), to the Bukhara Khan and the Russian Empire