The population of the republic as of 2008 is 679,400. More than 9% of the total population of the country lives in the capital of the republic. Tajiks live here (83.4%), Uzbeks (9.1%), Russians (5.1%) and other nationalities (2.4%).
Dushanbe is located at an altitude of 750-930 meters above sea level within the densely populated Gissar Valley in southern Tajikistan. The city is one of the highest mountain capitals in the world. Literally a hundred meters from its border, the mountains are already beginning.
Dushanbe has a pronounced continental climate, with dry and hot summers and humid cool winters. The Dushanbe-Darya River flows through the city, feeding the Komsomolskoye artificial lake in the center of the city. To the north of the city is Varzob gorge – there are numerous recreation centers.
Today Dushanbe is a modern world capital, a large sunny city with a developed infrastructure, which can be called a record for the number of streets, avenues, squares, named after poets and writers, which once again confirms the deep historical memory of Tajiks.
Dushanbe is the largest industrial center of the republic, producing more than one third of the industrial output of Tajikistan.
The transport system of Dushanbe is represented by rail, air and road transport.
In addition, Dushanbe is an important center of science and culture. There is the Academy of Sciences of the Republic with 26 research institutes that work in all areas of modern science. In Dushanbe, there are 13 higher education institutions, dozens of secondary specialized vocational schools, as well as 5 theaters (Aini Opera and Ballet Theater, A. Lakhuti Drama Theater, V. Mayakovsky Russian Drama Theater, etc.), philharmonic, circus, more than 70 cinemas and cinema installations, Tajikfilm studio. Here is the State Library. Firdavsi, more than 180 public libraries, 5 museums, a radio and television center, dozens of preschool institutions, etc.
In recognition of the outstanding contribution of the city to strengthening the values of peace, tolerance and solidarity in everyday life, on August 4, 2004, the UNESCO Dushanbe Prize of the Asia-Pacific Region for 2003-2004 was awarded by UNESCO Dushanbe.
In Dushanbe, the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the International Monetary Fund and other influential international institutions, and the diplomatic corps of foreign countries operate. Here, with the participation of leaders and heads of state, officials, politicians, representatives of world business, conferences, international symposiums and meetings on topical issues of today are held.
Dushanbe, no matter how paradoxical it may sound, is an ancient city and at the same time relatively young. The fact is that as archeologists claim and prove in practice, Dushanbe has a history that goes back centuries into centuries. However, it officially became the capital of the Republic of Tajikistan only in 1929, which is confirmed by documents stored in the State Archives of the Republic of Tajikistan.
In pre-revolutionary times, there were three small villages on the territory of Dushanbe: Sary Assiya, Shahmansur and Dushanbe. The latter in Tajik means “Monday”. That day was a market day in the village. In the rich bazaars of Dushanbe, in addition to local products of barley and wheat, flax, cocoons, fruits and vegetables, they sold English cloth, Chinese silk, Russian calico and other goods. By the way, the caravan roads of the Great Silk Road used to pass through the territory of the modern city. Apparently, therefore, in the bazaars of the city there was such an assortment of various products.
The time of occurrence of the ancient settlement on the territory of the modern city has not yet been precisely established.
In the course of research conducted on the territory of Dushanbe, various household items of ancient people who lived here at the end of the Stone Age, in the Neolithic Age, in 4–3 millennium BC, which are currently on display at the National Museum of Antiquities of Tajikistan, were discovered. center of the country. These antiquities were stone tools and accessories, household items, knives, sickles, threshers, jugs for storing water and grain. And the bronze mirror, ancient coins, tools, various decorations found by archaeologists back in 1939 can be attributed to the museum’s especially unique exhibits.
In addition, in the area of Putovsky descent, remains of settlements of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom (late 3rd century BC) were found, and the ancient settlement of the Kushan period (7th to 8th centuries) was found on the left bank of the Dushanbe-Darya river. The city of Kushan time, according to scientists, was of quite considerable size. Traces of his rural surroundings were discovered during the excavations of such early medieval settlements as Arki Mir (the territory of the botanical garden), Tespecaktepa (area of the residential complex Ispechak), Teppai Iskandar, town Shishi Khona.
In 1920, Dushanbe became p